What's in M208?

Introduction Real Functions and Graphs is a reminder of the principles underlying the sketching of graphs of functions and other curves. Mathematical Language covers the writing of pure mathematics and some of the methods used to construct proofs. Number Systems looks at the systems of numbers most widely used in mathematics: the integers, rational numbers, real numbers, complex numbers and modular or ‘clock’ arithmetics.

Group Theory (A) Symmetry studies the symmetries of plane figures and solids, including the five ‘Platonic solids’, and leads to the definition of a group. Groups and Subgroups introduces the idea of a cyclic group, using a geometric viewpoint, as well as isomorphisms between groups. Permutations introduces permutations, the cycle decomposition of permutations, odd and even permutations, and the notion of conjugacy. Cosets and Lagrange’s Theorem is about ‘blocking’ a group table, and leads to the notions of normal subgroup and quotient group.

Linear Algebra Vectors and Conics is an introduction to vectors and to the properties of conic sections. Linear Equations and Matrices explains why simultaneous equations may have different numbers of solutions, and also explains the use of matrices. Vector Spaces generalises the plane and three-dimensional space, providing a common structure for studying seemingly different problems. Linear Transformations is about mappings between vector spaces that preserve many geometric and algebraic properties. Eigenvectors leads to the diagonal representation of a linear transformation, and applications to conics and quadric surfaces.

Analysis (A) Numbers deals with real numbers as decimals, rational and irrational numbers, and goes on to show how to manipulate inequalities between real numbers. Sequences explains the ‘null sequence’ approach, used to make rigorous the idea of convergence of sequences, leading to the definitions of pi and e. Series covers the convergence of series of real numbers and the use of series to define the exponential function. Continuity describes the sequential definition of continuity, some key properties of continuous functions, and their applications.

Group Theory (B) Conjugacy looks at conjugate elements and conjugate subgroups, and returns to the idea of normal subgroups in this context. Homomorphisms is a generalisation of isomorphisms, which leads to a greater understanding of normal subgroups. Group Actions is a way of relating groups to geometry, which can be used to count the number of different ways a symmetric object can be coloured.

Analysis (B) Limits introduces the epsilon-delta approach to limits and continuity, and relates these to the sequential approach to limits of functions. Differentiation studies differentiable functions and gives l’HÃ´pital’s rule for evaluating limits. Integration explains the fundamental theorem of calculus, the Maclaurin integral test and Stirling’s formula. Power Series is about finding power series representations of functions, their properties and applications.

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